List of Edible and Beneficial Trees and Herbaceous Perennials for West Kauai Permaculture.
Fruit Trees canopy:
Jack Fruit (wonderful food source tree, starch and protein, (strong in hurricane winds)
Bunya Pine (available on island but rare)
Mamey Sapote (plant in the interior forest, in shallow water tables)
Mulberry (forest edge may be best)
Guava (careful to not plant invasive varieties!)
Peach Palm (food starch supply and wood)
Ulu (Breadfruit) plant in wind protected areas, interior forest. (many varieties with slight differing seasons)
Rambutan (interior forest)
Malabar chestnut (possibly a better medium understory tree or forest edge)
Lonomea (sapindus oahuensis)
Fruit Trees Under Storey:
Acerola (Barbados Cherry)
Abiu (from amazon. Wet and warm, but in full sun)
Wax Jambu (Mountain Apple)
Brazil Cherry (Surinam Cherry)
Tamarillo (Tree Tomato. not drought tolerant)
Carambola (Star Fruit)
Bilimbi (cucumber tree) related to starfruit. Full sun.
Grumichama (Brazil cherry)
Jaboticaba (slow growing. Graft or airlayer will fruit a few years sooner)
Fruit understory, Bushes, Shrubs and Berries:
Pitaya (dragonfruit) also known as a “climber”.
Poha berry (bigger fruit at higher elevations (1000-4000), smaller but more fruit at lower elevations.)
Miracle berry (drought tolerant with shade, acid loving)
red leaved (cranberry) hibiscus
Camu camu – Extremely high in vitamin c. Grow next to continual water source/ponds
Lilikoi (passion fruit)
Vanilla bean (orchid)
Perennial Ground covers:
Singapore Daisy (wedelia), use if already in place as it's better than grass... but not advised to plant this in a new area!
Pinto peanut- fast spreading. Permanent.
Velvet bean- hardy, nitrogen fixer, great weed suppressor. But an aggressive climber. Useage as a short-term green manure is best.
Long-term legume trees:
Tipuana Tipu (Pride of Bolivia) -large, hardy, drought resistant, good wood.
Koa (Acacia- highland and lowland (fermosa) varieties).
Inga Edulis (ice-cream bean)-edible pods, forage leaves.
Cassuarina Torulosa (ironwood) -useful if in place, but classified invasive so might not be best option for planting new trees unless specific function is needed and maintained.
Medium-term legume trees:
Leucaena (Haole Koa) -Already in place in most fallow land. Useful but not advised for propogating in new area, unless it's specific uses and mannerisms are known and well maintained.
Indigofera- Good forage for milking animals. Good biomass in soil production
Desmodium (150 different species... the ground cover in same family has many uses)
Gliricidia sepium (Madre de Cacao) -forage, fast growing, non-invasive, can be used as a living fence.
Albizia lebbeck (useful if already in place. Propagate with caution and only with working knowledge of the trees!!, basically, chop it down before it goes to seed! )
Calliandra – for forage and soil fertility. non-invasive
Short-term small trees and bushes:
Sesbania Sesbans (egyptian pea)-forage and good compost. Possible alley cropping for agroforestry
Cassia- hundreds of species in this genus, nitrogen fixers
Crotalaria (rattlepods)-good compostable, certain species can be poisonous to animals. (I've seen these growing all over feral ag land on west side.)
Pigeon Pea- multiple uses. Great, non invasive
Tephrosia- many species toxic to fish, traditional fish pond harvest on mass. Possible natural pesticide. Nitrogen fixer.
Annual ground cover:
Cow pea – food source and biomass. Nitrogen fixer
Lab Lab – food source for humans as well. Produces much biomass
Other beneficial Perennials
Mamaki (within forest floor for west side)
Vetiver grass- soil erosion control and soil remediation of heavy metals.
Poha berry- higher elevation=bigger berries
Miracle berry- grow by a lemon, lime or grapefruit tree for a garden novelty.
Mamaki -part shade, Red-veined varieties appear to handle full sun in open lowland landscapes.
Yakon- low glycemic food source. But not nutrient dense
Ipu- (chayote squash). Aggressive food source
Spilanthes- (toothache plant) medicinal
stevia -(sweetleaf) needs partial shade
sugarcane- also great for bulky hedges, fast growing.
Bambusa blumeana- thorny, hedge, non-invasive, erosion control.
many other beneficial bamboos to choose from, list expanding soon.